Space refers to the area around, between, above, below or within shapes or forms.
     In the Louisa Villea, space is essential in telling the story of the painting.  Louisa sits in the foreground with Louisville's Great Lawn behind her.  The skyline of Louisville stands in the background.  By keeping proportions accurate between Louisa and the buildings, one can readily tell the distance of space between the two.
     Spatial arrangement is strategic in telling the story of Louisa and Louisville.  Louisa's face is centered in the painting with symbolic objects occupying the spaces in front of her, beside her, above her, and behind her.