Balance is when principles and elements of art are used to make the painting visually stable. The artist strives to create harmony in the painting by balancing the shapes, spaces, colors, etc. into an aesthetically pleasing arrangement.
In the Louisa Villea, the figure of Louisa, herself, adds the most stability to the composition. The position in which she is sitting is in the shape of a triangle. The imaginary lines run from her right leg toward the top of her head and from the tip of the index finger of her left arm toward the top of her head. A triangle is a strong balanced shape.
There are other triangular shapes that repeat throughout the painting that add balance.
Colors, especially red, are used throughout the artwork to offer a feeling of balance, stability, and unity.