Value is the lightness or darkness of a color.  In painting, shapes can have various degrees of lightness and darkness to give it the illusion of a three-dimensional form.
     In the Louisa Villea, the main subject, Louisa, appears to be a realistic human form because of highlighting and shading.  By highlighting and shading in a realistic, natural manner Louisa seems to be three-dimensional.  It seems as if you could actually walk around her.

     Notice how value is used in rendering the buildings.  The buildings would appear flat if it wasn't for the light hitting on one side and casting shadows on the opposite side.  Value makes the buildings seem like they have form and hold a volume of space inside of them.

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